Ammonia "an attractive and low-risk marine fuel" – Ammonfuel report finds
In Denmark, "Ammonfuel", an in-depth study conducted by a consortium of industrial process and wind power technology providers has concluded that "ammonia is an attractive and low-risk marine fuel", applicable both in the transition phase towards more sustainable shipping and as a long-term solution.
Jointly conducted by Alfa Laval, Hafnia, Haldor Topsoe, Siemens Gamesa and Vestas, the report “Ammonfuel – An industrial view of ammonia as marine fuel” provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the applicability, scalability, cost, and sustainability of ammonia as a marine fuel.
Based on partners’ industrial expertise and input from a list of competent industrial players, the “Ammonfuel” report covers all aspects of the process of turning ammonia into marine fuel, including conventional and future green ammonia production, experience regarding safety with ammonia from other areas, the logistics of providing ammonia where it is needed, and the application onboard the ship.
The report focuses on cost, availability, safety, technical readiness, emissions, and the elimination of risks related to future environmental regulations and requirements and describes ammonia as an “attractive and low-risk marine fuel” both in the transition phase towards a more sustainable shipping industry and as a long-term solution.
Amongst the findings, the report notes that 120 ports are already equipped with ammonia trading facilities worldwide. The current global annual ammonia production is 180 million tonnes with a production overcapacity of 60 million tonnes.
Some 150 million tonnes of ammonia per annum would be required to meet a 30 percent marine fuel demand in 2050. As green ammonia, this would require 400 GW of renewable power.
Conventional ammonia is price stable and in US$/GJ, already cost comparable with Very Low Sulphur Fuel Oil (VLSFO) but without the price volatility while green ammonia is forecasted to reach the same price level as current conventional ammonia thanks to decreasing solar and wind power costs.