The UK has committed to becoming a Net Zero economy by 2050. Meeting that goal requires a transformation in land use across the UK. The government must confront the rapid changes that are now needed, the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) says in its first-ever in-depth advice on UK agricultural policies.
An independent, statutory body established under the Climate Change Act 2008, the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) purpose is to advise the UK Government and Devolved Administrations on emissions targets and report to Parliament on progress made in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and preparing for climate change.
The Committee’s new report, “Land use: Policies for a Net Zero UK“, presents a detailed range of options to drive emissions reductions in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. It is published at a time of significant change, as the UK leaves the European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In Westminster, new Agriculture and Environment Bills are being introduced this month. Similar legislation is planned in Scotland and Wales – opening the way to the steps recommended by the Committee.
Changing the way we use our land is critical to delivering the UK’s Net Zero target. The options we are proposing would see farmers and land managers – the stewards of the land – delivering actions to reduce emissions. Doing so can provide new revenue opportunities for farmers, better air quality and improved biodiversity, and more green spaces for us all to enjoy. But major changes are required and action from government is needed quickly if we are to reap the rewards, said Lord Deben, Chairman of the Committee on Climate Change.
The Committee’s in-depth analysis shows that emissions from UK land use can be reduced by 64 percent to around 21 million tonnes CO2e by 2050. The report demonstrates that this can be achieved without producing less food in the UK or increasing imports from elsewhere.
There are five objectives for the new policy:
- Increase tree planting – increasing UK forestry cover from 13 percent to at least 17 percent by 2050 by planting around 30,000 hectares (90 – 120 million trees) of broadleaf and conifer woodland each year.
- Encourage low-carbon farming practices – such as ‘controlled-release’ fertilisers, improving livestock health and slurry acidification.
- Restore peatlands – restoring at least 50 percent of upland peat and 25 percent of lowland peat.
- Encourage bioenergy crops – expanding UK energy crops to around 23 000 hectares each year.
- Reduce food waste and consumption of the most carbon-intensive foods – reduce the 13.6 million tonnes of food waste produced annually by 20 percent and the consumption of beef, lamb, and dairy by at least 20 percent per person, well within current healthy eating guidelines.
The Committee is proposing a mix of regulations and incentives to drive these changes and provide land managers with the long-term clarity they need. The actions identified would release around one-fifth of agricultural land for actions that reduce emissions and store carbon.
Strengthening the regulatory baseline – Extending existing regulation to reduce on-farm emissions and using new legislation to further regulate agricultural emissions. Banning damaging practices such as rotational burning on peatland and peat extraction.
New funding and revenue-raising actions – A new market-based measure to promote tree planting, either through auctioned contracts similar to those offered for renewable electricity or with the inclusion of forestry in a carbon trading scheme. This should be funded by a levy on GHG-emitting industries like aviation, but must not offset emissions reductions needed to meet Net Zero in other parts of the economy. Separately, public funding should encourage further steps: low-carbon farming practices, like precision farming, peatland restoration and the non-carbon benefits of land-use change like flood risk alleviation and recreation.
Measures to enable rapid change – Support schemes to strengthen skills, training for low-carbon farming and raise awareness of sustainable management of lowland peat. Low-interest loans for energy crops and an agreement with biomass combustion facilities to source a minimum proportion of their feedstock from the UK.
The Committee’s assessment shows that these measures carry a total cost of around GBP1.4 billion (≈ EUR 1.66 billion) per year, generating wider benefits of GBP4 billion (≈ EUR 4.74 billion) per year. Much of this funding can be provided privately – the total cost should be met through a combination of public and private funding. This will be a key consideration for the Treasury in its Net Zero Review of costs. At present, the UK deploys GBP3.3 billion (≈ EUR 3.91 billion) annually through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).